Background: We sought to determine (1) the success rate of debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) for acute periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the knee in patients with acute postsurgical infection and in those with acute hematogenous infection via a multicenter study, (2) the factors related to the failure of DAIR for overall acute PJI and acute hematogenous PJI via subgroup analysis, and (3) whether the PJI recurrence patterns differed between the two groups over time after DAIR. Methods: This retrospective multicenter study included 101 acute knee PJI. Acute postsurgical PJI was defined as PJI diagnosed < 3 months following initial knee arthroplasty surgery. DAIR was performed for 34 cases of acute postsurgical PJIs (postsurgical group) and 67 cases of acute hematogenous PJIs (hematogenous group). The success rates between groups were compared, and factors related to DAIR failure were analyzed. Results: The overall success rate of DAIR was 77%. The success rate tended to be higher in the postsurgical group than in the hematogenous group (p = 0.060). However, there was no significant factor related to DAIR failure in the subgroup analysis of acute hematogenous PJIs. In the postsurgical group, the recurrence of PJI occurred until 3 months, whereas in the hematogenous group, recurrence occurred for up to 2 years. Conclusions: The failure rate tended to be higher in the acute hematogenous PJI group than in the acute postsurgical PJI group. Since acute hematogenous infections may recur for a longer period than postsurgical infections, careful follow-up is required after DAIR.
- Acute hematogenous infection
- Acute postsurgical infection
- Periprosthetic joint infection
- Total knee arthroplasty