Variation in mortality of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in relation to high temperature

Youn Hee Lim, Ho Kim, Yun Chul Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Outdoor temperature has been reported to have a significant influence on the seasonal variations of stroke mortality, but few studies have investigated the effect of high temperature on the mortality of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. The main study goal was to examine the effect of temperature, particularly high temperature, on ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. We investigated the association between outdoor temperature and stroke mortality in four metropolitan cities in Korea during 1992-2007. We used time series analysis of the age-adjusted mortality rate for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke deaths by using generalized additive and generalized linear models, and estimated the percentage change of mortality rate associated with a 1°C increase of mean temperature. The temperature-responses for the hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke mortality differed, particularly in the range of high temperature. The estimated percentage change of ischemic stroke mortality above a threshold temperature was 5. 4 % (95 % CI, 3. 9-6. 9 %) in Seoul, 4. 1 % (95 % CI, 1. 6-6. 6 %) in Incheon, 2. 3 % (-0. 2 to 5. 0 %) in Daegu and 3. 6 % (0. 7-6. 6 %) in Busan, after controlling for daily mean humidity, mean air pressure, day of the week, season, and year. Additional adjustment of air pollution concentrations in the model did not change the effects. Hemorrhagic stroke mortality risk significantly decreased with increasing temperature without a threshold in the four cities after adjusting for confounders. These findings suggest that the mortality of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes show different patterns in relation to outdoor temperature. High temperature was harmful for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. The risk of high temperature to ischemic stroke did not differ by age or gender.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-153
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Biometeorology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013


  • Climate change
  • Hemorrhagic stroke
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Stroke mortality
  • Temperature

Cite this