Validation of the energy conservation strategies inventory (ECSI)

Young Ho Yun, Soo Hyun Kim, A. Jin Yang, Eunmi Ahn, Sook Hyun Kim, Dong Ok Shin, Jung Sook Sun, Soon Ok Kim, Kwang Mi Lee, Keon Suk Lee, Sun Hwa Baik, Suk Kyung Kim, Hae Suk Seo

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Context: In applying good energy conservation strategies to relieve cancer-related fatigue, it is critical to first identify cancer patients who are at a high risk for poor energy conservation. However, instruments have not been developed to evaluate energy conservation strategies in an oncology setting. Objectives: The aim of this study was to validate an instrument that cancer patients may use to evaluate energy conservation strategies to overcome cancer-related fatigue. Methods: The questionnaire development followed a four-phase process: 1) item generation and reduction, 2) construction, 3) pilot testing, and 4) field testing. Using relevant and priority criteria, as well as pilot testing, we developed a 25-item questionnaire. After field testing, five items were discarded. Finally, 20 items were included in the Energy Conservation Strategies Inventory (ECSI). Factor analysis, multitrait scaling analysis, and Cronbach's α were used to determine the construct validity and reliability. Results: Factor analyses of data from 140 cancer patients resulted in the ECSI, which covers activities related to planning, overcoming distractions, labor saving, burden reducing, and comfort. All subscales (Cronbach's α range, 0.69-0.78) and total scores (Cronbach's α = 0.87) were found to possess acceptable internal consistency. Conclusions: The good psychometric properties of the ECSI instrument show that it may be useful for measuring the frequency of energy conservation strategies used by cancer patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)606-613
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2012


  • Energy conservation
  • cancer-related fatigue
  • validation

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