Total intravenous anesthesia induced and maintained by a combination of remimazolam and remifentanil without a neuromuscular blocking agent: a prospective, observational pilot study

Insun Park, Mincheul Cho, Sun Woo Nam, Jung Won Hwang, Sang Hwan Do, Hyo Seok Na

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: A novel short-acting benzodiazepine, Remimazolam, has recently been approved for general anesthesia and sedation. Hence, we investigated the feasibility and safety of remimazolam during the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia without using a neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) in patients undergoing hysteroscopic surgery. Methods: This prospective observational study included 38 patients undergoing hysteroscopic surgery. Remimazolam and remifentanil were the main anesthetic agents without an NMBA, and a supraglottic airway was inserted to protect the airway. The induction time, amount of each anesthetic agent used during anesthesia, intraoperative bispectral index (BIS) hemodynamic parameters, and recovery profiles were measured. Results: General anesthesia was successfully administered to 37 patients using remimazolam and remifentanil without NMBA. The induction doses of remimazolam and remifentanil were 0.4 mg/kg (interquartile range [IQR] 0.34–0.47 mg/kg) and 1.07 μg/kg (IQR, 0.90–1.29 μg/kg), respectively. Additionally, the maintenance doses of remimazolam and remifentanil were 1.14 mg/kg/h (IQR, 0.88–1.55 mg/kg/h) and 0.06 μg/kg/min (IQR, 0.04–0.08 μg/kg/min), respectively. Intraoperative BIS values had risen temporarily > 60 in eight patients (21.6%) despite administration of 2 mg/kg/h of remimazolam; thus, they were treated with supplementary midazolam. The median recovery time was 7 min (IQR, 5–8 min) after 40 min (IQR, 40.0–57.5 min) of total mean anesthesia time. There was no correlation between the infusion dose of remimazolam and recovery profiles, such as recovery time, final BIS of anesthesia, modified observer assessment of alertness/sedation (OAA/S) scale or post-anesthesia recovery (PAR) score when arriving at the PACU, and length of stay in the PACU (all P > 0.05). Conclusion: Remimazolam can be combined with remifentanil without an NMBA in female patients who undergo hysteroscopic surgery, during which a supraglottic airway is a feasible method to protect the airway. Trial registration: The study protocol was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05025410) on 27/08/2021.

Original languageEnglish
Article number237
JournalBMC Anesthesiology
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • General anesthesia
  • Hysteroscopy
  • Neuromuscular blockade
  • Remifentanil
  • Remimazolam

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