The subthalamic nucleus (STN) controls psychomotor activity and is an efficient therapeutic deep brain stimulation target in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Despite evidence indicating position-dependent therapeutic effects and distinct functions within the STN, the input circuit and cellular profile in the STN remain largely unclear. Using neuroanatomical techniques, we construct a comprehensive connectivity map of the indirect and hyperdirect pathways in the mouse STN. Our circuit- and cellular-level connectivities reveal a topographically graded organization with three types of indirect and hyperdirect pathways (external globus pallidus only, STN only, and collateral). We confirm consistent pathways into the human STN by 7 T MRI-based tractography. We identify two functional types of topographically distinct glutamatergic STN neurons (parvalbumin [PV+/−]) with synaptic connectivity from indirect and hyperdirect pathways. Glutamatergic PV+ STN neurons contribute to burst firing. These data suggest a complex interplay of information integration within the basal ganglia underlying coordinated movement control and therapeutic effects.
- cell type
- firing pattern
- indirect and hyperdirect pathways
- subthalamic nucleus