Tc-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) has been used to help surgeons explore the location of parathyroid diseases, but quantitative parameters have not been systemically investigated for this purpose. We aimed to establish objective criteria for adenoma and hyperplasia using the standardized uptake value (SUV) in patients with hyperparathyroidism.Thirty-nine hyperparathyroid patients (male/female: 17/22, age: 58.33 ± 11.69 years) with at least 1 uptake-positive lesion of any degree by visual assessment in preoperative Tc-99m sestamibi quantitative SPECT/CT were included from Oct 2015 to Oct 2017. Pathologically, 44 lesions (32 adenomas and 12 hyperplasia) were identified. All patients experienced normalized levels of intact parathyroid hormone immediately after surgery. Quantitative SPECT/CT was performed at 10 minute and 2 hour post injection of Tc-99m sestabmibi (dose = 740 MBq), and maximum SUV (SUVmax) was measured for the parathyroid lesions. Experienced pathologists evaluated the percentage cellular proportions of chief cells, oxyphil cells, and clear cells.SUVmax (g/mL) of adenomas, hyperplasia, and reference thyroid tissue were 12.92 ± 6.68, 7.90 ± 5.49, and 7.01 ± 2.62 at 10min (early phase), decreasing to 7.46 ± 5.66, 4.65 ± 3.14, and 2.21 ± 1.07 at 2 hour (delayed phase), respectively. The adenomas showed significantly higher SUVmax than both the hyperplasia (P = .0131) and reference thyroid tissue (P < .0001) along the early and delayed phases, but the SUVmax of the hyperplasia did not differ from that of the reference thyroid tissue (P = .4196). The adenomas and hyperplasia were discriminated from the reference thyroid tissue using a cutoff SUVmax of 3.26 at the delayed phase. The adenomas had lower %proportions of oxyphil cells than the hyperplasia (P = .0054), but its SUVmax at the delayed phase was positively correlated with the %proportions of mitochondria-abundant oxyphil cells (rho = 0.418, P = .0173). The hyperplasia showed no correlation between SUVmax and cellular proportions.SUVmax at the delayed phase in the Tc-99m sestamibi quantitative SPECT/CT was useful for the identification and differentiation of parathyroid lesions causing hyperparathyroidism.