We evaluated the contribution of tumor volume (TV) to localized prostate cancer (PCa) patients’ prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 2394 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized PCa. The effect of TV and tumor prostate ratio (TV/PV) on PCa patients' prognosis was analyzed through Kaplan–Meier and Cox-proportional analysis. The mean prostate volume for all patients was 36.5 ± 15.4 cc, and the mean TV was 5.9 ± 8.3 cc. A significant positive relationship was observed between the classification by risk group in D’ Amico risk classification and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (P < 0.001). The high TV showed significantly worse pathologic outcomes than the low TV in terms of high rates of extra-capsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and positive surgical margin (P < 0.05). The patients with high TV and TV/PV had significantly shorter biochemical recurrence-free survivals than those with low TV and TV/PV (P < 0.001). Finally, based on multivariate Cox-proportional analyses, TV and TV/PV was an independent predictor to predict shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival as both a TV (HR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.04–1.05, P < 0.001) and TV/PV (HR: 1.42, 95% CI 1.13–1.78, P = 0.003). TV was revealed to be an independent prognostic factor in the postoperative biochemical recurrence. Patients with a high number of positive core and longer tumor length were significantly related to higher TV.