The Relationship between Femoral Stem Tilt and Stem Length in Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Case-Control Study

Jae Youn Yoon, Won Young Seo, Hee Joong Kim, Jeong Joon Yoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The current trend of using short femoral stems in total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with angular deviation of the femoral stem towards the native femoral axis. The purpose of this study was to compare the difference in stem tilt angle between two different stems with a similar design except for the stem length. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 66 patients who underwent primary THA between April 2012 and May 2016, using a trans-gluteal direct lateral approach by a single surgeon. We evaluated the femoral stem tilt angle in both the coronal and sagittal planes and performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to evaluate possible risk factors. We also simulated the range of motion (ROM) of the hip joint using three-dimensional computer-aided design software (SolidWorks, 2016) to examine the clinical significance of femoral stem tilt. Results: The mean coronal tilt angle was 1.8° ± 1.0° in the conventional stem group and 1.6° ± 1.1° in the short stem group, showing no statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.570). However, the mean sagittal tilt angle was 4.0° ± 2.0° in the conventional stem group and 7.8° ± 2.0° in the short stem group (p < 0.001). The stem type and stem length had a linear correlation with the sagittal tilt angle (p < 0.001) in multivariate regression analysis. A simulated hip ROM demonstrated a 3.8° decrease in extension in proportion to a 3.8° increase in the mean sagittal stem tilt angle of the short femoral stem. Conclusions: Anterior femoral stem tilting in the sagittal plane was prominent when the shorter stem was used, and anterior tilting was responsible for decreased ROM in hip extension.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)184-190
Number of pages7
JournalCiOS Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • Combined anteversion
  • Hip joint
  • Prosthesis design
  • Sagittal stem alignment
  • Total hip arthroplasty


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