The artificial nanostructures such as nanoparticles and natural nanostructures such as secreted nanosized extracellular vesicles known as exosomes are promising tools for the realization of personalized medicine. Radionanomedicine is a recently coined term for the simultaneous application of either radiation technology or nuclear medicine with nanomedicine. In addition, radioexosomics is our suggested term for the study of exosomes functions, cytotoxicity, cancerogenicity, and biodistribution using radiation technology and nuclear medicine tracing technology. Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and a big majority of patients with PC progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) mostly. The mechanisms leading to development of CRPC remain poorly understood and there is still a need to improve the therapeutic options available for PCa. In this review, a wide variety of nanostructure-based prostate cancer research using radiation technology and nuclear medicine is discussed. In addition, we will present what is currently known about the function of exosomes in PCa. The review concludes by summarizing the current status and future perspectives of radionanomedicine and radioexosomics for understanding PCa biology, as well as PCa enhancement of targeting strategies, drug delivery, molecular imaging and therapy.
- Nuclear medicine