Temporal variability of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels in elderly panel study (2008–2014)

Seungho Lee, Miyeon Shin, Yun-Chul Hong, Jin Hee Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Biological measurements have been employed as useful biomarkers for exposure. Because of its property of reflecting toxicokinetic differences, however, within-subject variability leads to biased results in epidemiologic studies. Method We examined the variability of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) levels in blood samples from 1429 participants among 1677 elderly individuals aged over 60 years who lived in an urban area from August 2008 to April 2015. Results The geometric means of blood Pb, Hg, Cd were 1.92 μg/dL, 2.48 μg/L, and 1.33 μg/L, and the intra-class correlations (ICCs) were 0.81, 0.71, and 0.83, respectively. The mean values of Pb and Hg levels in this study were lower than the results from single spot samples in other national biomonitoring surveys in Korea, with the exception of Cd was higher than those in other studies. Moreover, the predicted exceedances over the guidance levels for Pb, Hg, and Cd were 1.9%, 4.2%, and 0.3%, respectively. Conclusion Korean elderly were exposed to high levels of Pb, Hg and Cd. Especially, those who had high levels of Cd were continuously exposed to Cd during study period with the 6 collection intervals. Therefore, factors affecting environmental Cd exposure should be further studied in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)407-414
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Volume220
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2017

Fingerprint

Mercury
Cadmium
Lead
Environmental Monitoring
Environmental Exposure
Korea
Epidemiologic Studies
Biomarkers

Keywords

  • Cadmium
  • Exceedance
  • Intra-class correlation (ICC)
  • Lead
  • Mercury

Cite this

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title = "Temporal variability of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels in elderly panel study (2008–2014)",
abstract = "Background Biological measurements have been employed as useful biomarkers for exposure. Because of its property of reflecting toxicokinetic differences, however, within-subject variability leads to biased results in epidemiologic studies. Method We examined the variability of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) levels in blood samples from 1429 participants among 1677 elderly individuals aged over 60 years who lived in an urban area from August 2008 to April 2015. Results The geometric means of blood Pb, Hg, Cd were 1.92 μg/dL, 2.48 μg/L, and 1.33 μg/L, and the intra-class correlations (ICCs) were 0.81, 0.71, and 0.83, respectively. The mean values of Pb and Hg levels in this study were lower than the results from single spot samples in other national biomonitoring surveys in Korea, with the exception of Cd was higher than those in other studies. Moreover, the predicted exceedances over the guidance levels for Pb, Hg, and Cd were 1.9{\%}, 4.2{\%}, and 0.3{\%}, respectively. Conclusion Korean elderly were exposed to high levels of Pb, Hg and Cd. Especially, those who had high levels of Cd were continuously exposed to Cd during study period with the 6 collection intervals. Therefore, factors affecting environmental Cd exposure should be further studied in the future.",
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Temporal variability of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels in elderly panel study (2008–2014). / Lee, Seungho; Shin, Miyeon; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Jin Hee.

In: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Vol. 220, No. 2, 01.04.2017, p. 407-414.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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AU - Shin, Miyeon

AU - Hong, Yun-Chul

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N2 - Background Biological measurements have been employed as useful biomarkers for exposure. Because of its property of reflecting toxicokinetic differences, however, within-subject variability leads to biased results in epidemiologic studies. Method We examined the variability of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) levels in blood samples from 1429 participants among 1677 elderly individuals aged over 60 years who lived in an urban area from August 2008 to April 2015. Results The geometric means of blood Pb, Hg, Cd were 1.92 μg/dL, 2.48 μg/L, and 1.33 μg/L, and the intra-class correlations (ICCs) were 0.81, 0.71, and 0.83, respectively. The mean values of Pb and Hg levels in this study were lower than the results from single spot samples in other national biomonitoring surveys in Korea, with the exception of Cd was higher than those in other studies. Moreover, the predicted exceedances over the guidance levels for Pb, Hg, and Cd were 1.9%, 4.2%, and 0.3%, respectively. Conclusion Korean elderly were exposed to high levels of Pb, Hg and Cd. Especially, those who had high levels of Cd were continuously exposed to Cd during study period with the 6 collection intervals. Therefore, factors affecting environmental Cd exposure should be further studied in the future.

AB - Background Biological measurements have been employed as useful biomarkers for exposure. Because of its property of reflecting toxicokinetic differences, however, within-subject variability leads to biased results in epidemiologic studies. Method We examined the variability of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) levels in blood samples from 1429 participants among 1677 elderly individuals aged over 60 years who lived in an urban area from August 2008 to April 2015. Results The geometric means of blood Pb, Hg, Cd were 1.92 μg/dL, 2.48 μg/L, and 1.33 μg/L, and the intra-class correlations (ICCs) were 0.81, 0.71, and 0.83, respectively. The mean values of Pb and Hg levels in this study were lower than the results from single spot samples in other national biomonitoring surveys in Korea, with the exception of Cd was higher than those in other studies. Moreover, the predicted exceedances over the guidance levels for Pb, Hg, and Cd were 1.9%, 4.2%, and 0.3%, respectively. Conclusion Korean elderly were exposed to high levels of Pb, Hg and Cd. Especially, those who had high levels of Cd were continuously exposed to Cd during study period with the 6 collection intervals. Therefore, factors affecting environmental Cd exposure should be further studied in the future.

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KW - Exceedance

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