Sustained activity of metabotropic glutamate receptor: Homer, Arrestin, and beyond

Geehoon Chung, Sang Jeong Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


When activated, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) exert long-lasting changes within the glutamatergic synapses. One mechanism is a tonic effect of downstream signal transduction pathways via sustained activation of mGlu itself. Like many other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), mGlu can exist in a constitutively active state, which persists agonist independently. In this paper, we review the current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the constitutive activity of group I mGlus. The issues concerning Homer1a mechanism in the constitutive activity of group I mGlus and recent findings regarding the significant role of β-arrestin in sustained GPCR activity are also discussed. We propose that once in a state of sustained activation, the mGlu persistently activates downstream signaling pathways, including various adaptor proteins and kinases, such as β-arrestin and mitogen-activated protein kinases. In turn, these effector molecules bind to or phosphorylate the mGlu C-terminal binding domains and consequently regulate the activation state of the mGlu.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5125624
JournalNeural Plasticity
StatePublished - 2017


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