Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide accounting for over 800,000 new cases in 2018, with the highest incidence in Asia and Africa where hepatitis B is the most common risk factor. In Europe, Japan, and the United States, hepatitis C chronic alcohol abuse and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are more common risk factors. Five-year survival is low, less than 20% worldwide. HCC is a particularly challenging disease to treat because therapeutic options and prognosis must also consider hepatitis or cirrhosis independent of the malignancy. Locore-gional therapies (LRT) including ablation, arterially directed therapy and external beam radiation are the preferred treatments for patients with good performance status, unresectable disease limited to the liver and preserved liver function. In practice, patients with portal vein tumor thrombus and limited extrahepatic disease may also be considered candidates for LRT. There are several guidelines developed by expert panels provide recommendations on treating this challenging disease including the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer, European Association for the Study of the Liver, European Society for Medical Oncology, American Association for the Study of the Liver Diseases, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. The purpose of this paper is to review the guidelines as they are applied clinically in regions with high incidence of HCC.