Spectral CT-Based Iodized Oil Quantification to Predict Tumor Response Following Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Won Seok Choi, Won Chang, Myungsu Lee, Saebeom Hur, Hyo Cheol Kim, Hwan Jun Jae, Jin Wook Chung, Jin Woo Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To quantify iodized oil retention in tumors after transarterial chemoembolization using spectral computed tomography (CT) imaging in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate its performance in predicting 12-month tumor responses. Materials and Methods: From September 2017 to December 2018, 111 patients with HCC underwent initial conventional transarterial chemoembolization. Immediately after the procedure, unenhanced CT was performed using a spectral CT scanner, and the iodized oil densities in index tumors were measured. In tumor-level analyses, a threshold level of iodized oil density in the tumors was calculated using clustered receiver operating characteristic curve analyses to predict the 12-month tumor responses. In patient-level analyses, significant factors associated with a 12-month complete response, including the presence of tumors below the threshold value (ie, suspected residual tumors), were evaluated by logistic regression. Results: Forty-eight HCCs in 39 patients were included in the analyses. The lower 10th percentile of the iodine density was identified as the threshold for determining the 12-month nonviable responses. The area under the curve of the iodine density measurements in predicting the 12-month nonviable responses was 0.893 (95% confidence interval, 0.797–0.989). The threshold value of the iodine density of 10.68 mg/mL yielded a sensitivity of 82.76% and specificity of 94.74% (P <.001). In the patient-level analysis, the 12-month complete response was significantly associated with the presence of a suspected residual tumor, with an odds ratio of 72.0 (95% confidence interval, 7.273–712.770). Conclusions: Spectral CT imaging using quantitative analysis of the iodized oil retention in target HCCs can predict tumor responses after a conventional transarterial chemoembolization procedure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-22
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021

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