Background and objectives: Parkinson’s disease (PD) and schizophrenia often share symp-tomatology. Psychotic symptoms are prevalent in patients with PD, and similar motor symptoms with extrapyramidal signs are frequently observed in antipsychotic-naïve patients with schizophrenia as well as premorbid families. However, few studies have examined the relationship between PD and schizophrenia. We performed this study to evaluate whether genetic variants which increase PD risk influence the risk of developing schizophrenia, and vice versa. Materials and Methods: Two-sample Mendelian randomization (TSMR) with summary statistics from large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) was applied. Summary statistics were extracted for these instruments from GWAS of PD and schizophrenia; Results: We found an increase in the risk of schizophrenia per one-standard deviation (SD) increase in the genetically-predicted PD risk (inverse-variance weighted method, odds ratio = 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.05−1.15; p = 3.49 × 10−5). The association was consistent in sensitivity analyses, including multiple TSMR methods, analysis after removing outlier variants with potential pleiotropic effects, and analysis after applying multiple GWAS subthresholds. No relationships were evident between PD and smoking or other psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar affective disorder, major depressive disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, or alcohol dependence. However, we did not find a reverse relationship; genetic variants increasing schizophrenia risk did not alter the risk of PD; Conclusions: Overall, our findings suggest that increased genetic risk of PD can be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. This association supports the intrinsic nature of the psychotic symptom in PD rather than medication or environmental effects. Future studies for possible comorbidities and shared genetic structure between the two diseases are warranted.
- Mendelian randomization
- Parkinson’s disease