Sex, menopause, and age differences in the associations of persistent organic pollutants with thyroid hormones, thyroxine-binding globulin, and peripheral deiodinase activity: A cross-sectional study of the general Korean adult population

Min Joo Kim, Sohyeon Choi, Sunmi Kim, Inae Lee, Min Kyong Moon, Kyungho Choi, Jeongim Park, Yoon Hee Cho, Young Min Kwon, Jiyoung Yoo, Gi Jeong Cheon, Young Joo Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can disrupt the thyroid hormone system in humans. We assessed the associations of several POPs with serum thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone, and investigated the modulating effects of sex, menopausal status, and age on these associations, in a subgroup of the adult population (n = 1250) from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey. PCB105 and PCB118 were negatively associated with total T4 in premenopausal females and males aged <50, whereas the associations were insignificant in other groups. PCB180, p,p′-DDE, and p,p′-DDT showed positive associations with total T3 in postmenopausal females; however, among males aged ≥50, PCB118, PCB138, and p,p′-DDE showed negative associations with total T3. The effects of exposure to multiple POPs were examined in multi-factor analyses. Factor 2 comprised PCB52, hexachlorobenzene, and BDE-47 was associated with an increase in free T4 in premenopausal females (β = 0.015, p = 0.024), while Factor 1, which contained most POPs, was associated with a change in total T3 in postmenopausal females (β = 0.032, p = 0.040) and males aged ≥50 (β = −0.039, p = 0.023). Changes in total T4 or total T3 could be explained by differences in thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and peripheral deiodinase activity (GD). Negative associations of TBG with PCB105 in premenopausal females and PCB153 in males aged <50 may mediate the effect of decreasing total T4. PCB180, p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, and Factor 1 were positively associated with GD, which is consistent with an increased total T3 in postmenopausal females. PCB118 was negatively associated with GD and total T3 in males aged ≥50. BDE-47 and β-hexachlorocyclohexane were associated with thyroid autoantibodies in premenopausal females and males aged <50. Our observations suggest that the thyroid-disrupting effects of POPs may differ by sex, sex hormonal status, and age, and may be mediated by TBG and GD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113143
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume212
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Keywords

  • Iodothyronine deiodinase
  • Persistent organic pollutants
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls
  • Thyroid hormones
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Sex, menopause, and age differences in the associations of persistent organic pollutants with thyroid hormones, thyroxine-binding globulin, and peripheral deiodinase activity: A cross-sectional study of the general Korean adult population'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this