Sarcopenia is a common health issue that is not limited to only elderly patients. However, many studies have reported factors to prevent sarcopenia only in susceptible groups. This study evaluates the relationship of the total energy intake to basal metabolic rate ratio (EI/BMR) and physical activity (PA) with sarcopenia. A second aim was to analyze the interaction between EI/BMR and PA by sex and age. We analyzed 16,313 subjects aged ≥ 19 years who had dual‒energy X-ray absorptiometry data. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular lean mass/weight (%) that was 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean value for a young reference group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between EI/BMR and PA. In this study, as EI/BMR increased, the risk of sarcopenia decreased, particularly in the older groups. Both high PA and high EI/BMR were independently related to the reduced risk of sarcopenia and showed additive effects on reducing the risk in young male and older groups. However, high PA was associated with an increased risk of sarcopenia in the young female group with low energy intake. Our findings suggest that an adequate balance between energy intake and PA is related to a low risk of sarcopenia, especially in young females.