Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Young Women with Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Abstract

This meta-analysis investigated whether thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) was associated with an increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as miscarriage, preterm delivery, and congenital malformations. A total of 22 articles (5 case-control and 17 case series studies) from 1262 studies identified through a literature search in the PubMed and EMBASE databases from inception up to 13 September 2021 were included. In patients with DTC who underwent thyroidectomy, the event rates for miscarriage, preterm labor, and congenital anomalies were 0.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05–0.11; 17 studies), 0.07 (95% CI, 0.05–0.09; 14 studies), and 0.03 (95% CI, 0.02–0.06; 17 studies), respectively. These results are similar to those previously reported in the general population. The risk of miscarriage or abortion was increased in patients with DTC when compared with controls without DTC (odds ratio [OR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.28–2.53; I2 = 33%; 3 studies), while the OR values for preterm labor and the presence of congenital anomalies were 1.22 (95% CI, 0.90–1.66; I2 = 62%; five studies) and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.39–1.38; I2 = 0%; two studies) respectively, which showed no statistical significance. A subgroup analysis of patients with DTC according to RAIT revealed that the risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, or congenital anomalies was not increased in the RAIT group when compared with patients without RAIT. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that thyroid cancer treatment, including RAIT, is not associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including miscarriage, preterm labor, and congenital anomalies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2382
JournalCancers
Volume14
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2022

Keywords

  • adverse effects
  • pregnancy outcomes
  • radioactive iodine treatment
  • thyroid cancer

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