Purpose The study aimed to evaluate risk factors for macular atrophy (MA) associated with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) during long-term follow-up after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment in highly myopic eyes. Methods The medical records of patients who received intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF agents as mCNV treatment and were followed-up for more than 36 months were retrospectively reviewed. The risk factors for the development of mCNV-MA, which is the fovea-involving patchy atrophy lesion adjacent to mCNV, were investigated using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results A total of 82 eyes (74 patients) were included in the study. The mean age at anti-VEGF treatment was 56.3 ± 12.5 years (range, 26-77), and the mean follow-up period was 76.3 ± 33.5 months (range, 36-154). During follow-up, mCNV-MA developed in 27 eyes (32.9%), and its occurrence was estimated to be 24.5% at 3 years and 37.3% at 5 years after the first anti- VEGF treatment. Old age (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.054, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.018- 1.091; P = 0.003) and greater CNV size at baseline (HR = 2.396, CI: 1.043-5.504; P = 0.040) were significant factors for mCNV-MA development. Eyes with a thinner subfoveal choroid were more likely to show faster enlargement of the mCNV-MA during follow-up. Conclusions In mCNV eyes treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents, older age and greater mCNV size at baseline were risk factors for the development of MA during long-term follow-up, which was associated with a poor visual prognosis.