Residential pyrethroid insecticide use, urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid levels, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-like symptoms in preschool-age children: The Environment and Development of Children study

Woo Seok Lee, Youn Hee Lim, Bung Nyun Kim, Choong Ho Shin, Young Ah Lee, Johanna Inhyang Kim, Yun Chul Hong, Kyoung Nam Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Previous animal studies have reported that pyrethroids can cause dopamine system abnormalities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotypes. However, epidemiological studies investigating the associations between pyrethroid exposure and ADHD are limited. We aimed to investigate the association between pyrethroid exposure and ADHD-like symptoms among preschool-age children. We used data from 385 children at 4 years of age participating in the Environment and Development of Children (EDC) study. We evaluated pyrethroid exposure through questionnaires and urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) concentrations. We assessed ADHD-like symptoms using the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS). We conducted negative binomial regressions to evaluate the associations between pyrethroid exposure and ADHD-like symptoms. Residential use of insecticide adhesive (β = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.74) and insecticide spray (β = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.59) was associated with an increase in log-transformed creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA concentrations. Residential insecticide adhesive use was associated with a 51.6% increase in K-ARS scores (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.3, 116.1) among boys, when compared with non-users. When compared with creatinine-adjusted 3-PBA levels <0.50 μg/g creatinine, creatinine-adjusted 3-PBA levels ≥3.80 μg/g creatinine were associated with a 58% increase in K-ARS scores (95% CI: 0.1, 150.5) among boys. We found associations of residential pyrethroid insecticide use and urinary 3-PBA concentrations with K-ARS scores among preschool-age boys. Since the present study explored cross-sectional associations in preschool-age children, the possibility of reverse causality cannot be dismissed. Further studies implementing a cohort study design are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109739
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume188
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2020

Keywords

  • 3-phenoxybenzoic acid
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Preschool-age children
  • Pyrethroid insecticide

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