Objective: Accelerated loss of muscle mass is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Various factors associated with CKD, such as nutritional deficiencies, metabolic acidosis, and chronic inflammation, contribute to muscle wasting. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between CKD and handgrip strength (HGS) in the Korean population. Design and Methods: This is a population-based, cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of 18,765 patients aged ≥19 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2014–2017. We measured HGS using a digital hand dynamometer and determined the cutoff for low HGS by deriving -2 standard deviation values of sex-matched healthy young adults (19-39 years old). We defined CKD as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or the presence of CKD based on a self-reported questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of CKD was 4.0% in the total population. The cutoff values for the low HGS were 29.5 kg for men and 16.8 kg for women. The prevalence of low HGS was 6.2% in patients without CKD, and 25.2% in patients with CKD. There was a significant correlation between HGS and eGFR in both men and women. In multivariate logistic regression adjusted by age group, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, CKD showed an independent relationship with low HGS in both men (odds ratio [OR] 1.910, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.468-2.485) and women (OR 1.570, 95% CI 1.202-2.052). Conclusions: The prevalence of low HGS was higher in patients with CKD. We suggest that the sarcopenia should be evaluated in patients with CKD.