Background: Conjunctival myeloid sarcoma (MS) as an isolated presentation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse is rare. Here, we report a case of unilateral conjunctival MS revealed as a sign of AML relapse. Case presentation: A 50-year-old man with a history of AML in remission visited our clinic presenting with a left conjunctival injection persisting for 1 month. Diffuse subconjunctival thickening with conjunctival vascular engorgement was observed. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a hyper-reflective, thickened conjunctiva in his left eye. During the incisional biopsy, the lesion was strongly attached to the underlying sclera; histopathologic examination revealed infiltration of leukemic blasts. The relapse of AML was confirmed by a successive bone marrow biopsy. The ocular lesion disappeared after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) and concomitant salvage radiotherapy on the left eye. The patient has remained in remission for 3 years after allogeneic PBSCT. Conclusions: Incidental conjunctival lesions can indicate AML relapse in patients treated earlier for AML. An ophthalmologist may have a role in the early detection of AML when a patient presents with an atypical conjunctival lesion.
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- Acute myeloid leukemia
- Case report
- Conjunctival myeloid sarcoma