Background/Aims: Advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) is associated with poor survival. A recent phase II study of triplet combination chemotherapy, including gemcitabine, cisplatin, and nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel, has shown promising results. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of triplet and standard doublet chemotherapy in a real-world setting. Methods: Patients with advanced BTC treated with triplet and doublet chemotherapy regimens were recruited. The propensity-score nearest neighbor matching method with a ratio of one-to-one was used to create a matched cohort for comparison. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety profiles were examined in both groups. Results: A total of 68 patients (n=34 per group) were included in the matched cohort, and their baseline characteristics were well balanced. Survival outcomes in the triplet chemotherapy group were not better than those in the doublet chemotherapy group, with a median PFS of 7.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1 to 10.9) versus 7.2 months (95% CI, 5.6 to 8.9) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% CI, 0.53 to 1.62; p=0.793) and a median OS of 13.7 months (95% CI, 8.8 to 18.7) versus 12.2 months (95% CI, 8.4 to 16.0) (HR 0.73; 95% CI, 0.38 to 1.41; p=0.354), respectively. In addition, the treatment-related severe adverse events, such as neutropenia, were more common in the triplet chemotherapy group. Conclusions: Gemcitabine, cisplatin, and nab-paclitaxel did not improve the PFS or OS compared to that achieved by standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced BTC. The benefits of triplet chemotherapy in advanced BTC require examination in large randomized controlled trials.
- Albumin-bound paclitaxel
- Biliary tract cancer