Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is difficult to distinguish from other cancers, especially when its pathological features are atypical for ATC or when the tumor is totally undifferentiated and occurs after a considerable lapse of time, in an area remote from the original site of the tumor. Here, we present two patients (68-year-old man and 56-yearold woman) with rare manifestations of ATC, which were initially thought to be other malignancies. Immunohistochemical tests, using various markers, failed to provide information about the origin of these tumors. However, both patients had a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) from several years ago and BRAF mutations were observed in the undifferentiated tumors, as well as in the previous PTCs. Therefore, we could make a diagnosis of ATC derived from PTC. As such, BRAF mutation analysis may serve as a useful tool for ATC diagnosis in challenging ATC cases.
- Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma
- Papillary thyroid carcinoma