Purpose: To determine whether hepatocyte uptake ratios derived at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI correlate with quantitative measures of liver function and can help to identify contraindication to major hepatectomy. Materials and Methods: Between August 2016 and October 2016, 50 study participants with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis underwent liver MRI at 3.0 T including T1 mapping and elastography. Liver function was quantitatively assessed by using the indocyanine green retention test (ICG R15). T1 maps were obtained by using the Look-Locker sequence before and 10 minutes after gadoxetic acid administration (0.025 mmol/kg). The relationship between ICG R15 and the following MRI parameters was evaluated: pre- and postcontrast T1 values of the liver, hepatocyte uptake ratio representing the amount of contrast media solely taken into hepatocytes, liver volume, and degree of enhancement at the common bile duct. Diagnostic performance of the hepatocyte uptake ratio to identify patients with ICG R15 greater than 20% (ie, contraindication to hepatectomy) was compared with other parameters by using areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: Hepatocyte uptake ratio showed a negative correlation with ICG R15 r of 20.78 (P < .001). In participants with chronic liver disease or Child-Pugh class A, those with ICG R15 of 20% or less showed higher hepatocyte uptake ratio than those with ICG R15 greater than 20% (P < .001). Hepatocyte uptake ratios demonstrated better performance for helping to detect ICG R15 greater than 20% than did liver volume (area under the curve, 0.96 vs 0.70; P = .01). Conclusion: Hepatocyte uptake ratios are negatively correlated with liver function as measured by indocyanine green retention test and provide acceptable diagnostic performance for helping to identify participants who have contraindications to major hepatectomy.