Pregnancy outcomes of women additionally diagnosed as gestational diabetes by the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study groups criteria

Min Hyoung Kim, Soo Heon Kwak, Sung Hoon Kim, Joon Seok Hong, Hye Rim Chung, Sung Hee Choi, Moon Young Kim, Hak C. Jang

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Abstract

Background: We investigated the pregnancy outcomes in women who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria but not by the Carpenter-Coustan (CC) criteria. Methods: A total of 8,735 Korean pregnant women were identified at two hospitals between 2014 and 2016. Among them, 2,038 women participated in the prospective cohort to investigate pregnancy outcomes. Diagnosis of GDM was made via two-step approach with 50-g glucose challenge test for screening followed by diagnostic 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Women were divided into three groups: non-GDM, GDM diagnosed exclusively by the IADPSG criteria, and GDM diagnosed by the CC criteria. Results: The incidence of GDM was 2.1% according to the CC criteria, and 4.1% by the IADPSG criteria. Women diagnosed with GDM by the IADPSG criteria had a higher body mass index (22.0±3.1 kg/m2 vs. 21.0±2.8 kg/m2, P<0.001) and an increased risk of preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 6.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84 to 25.87; P=0.004) compared to non-GDM women. Compared to neonates of the non-GDM group, those of the IADPSG GDM group had an increased risk of being large for gestational age (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.50 to 3.81; P<0.001), macrosomia (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.26 to 5.10; P=0.009), and neonatal hypoglycemia (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.01 to 14.74; P=0.049); they were also at an increased risk of requiring phototherapy (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.31; P=0.022) compared to the non-GDM group. Conclusion: The IADPSG criteria increased the incidence of GDM by nearly three-fold, and women diagnosed with GDM by the IADPSG criteria had an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in Korea.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)766-775
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetes and Metabolism Journal
Volume43
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2019

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Keywords

  • Diabetes, gestational
  • Glucose tolerance test
  • Infant, newborn
  • Pregnancy
  • Women

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