Emerging evidence suggests that the lack of PPARα enhances hepatic steatosis and inflammation in Ppara-null mice when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether Ppara-null mice are more susceptible to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than their wild-type (WT) counterparts following short-term feeding with a HFD. Agematched male WT and Ppara-null mice were randomly assigned to consume ad libitum a standard Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet (STD) (35% energy from fat) or a HFD (71% energy from fat) for 3 wk. Liver histology, plasma transaminase levels, and indicators of oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in all groups. Levels of lobular inflammation and the NASH activity score were greater in HFD-exposed Ppara-null mice than in the other 3 groups. Biochemical analysis revealed elevated levels of ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 2E1 and TNFα accompanied by increased levels of malondialdehyde as well as oxidized and nitrated proteins in Ppara-null mice. Elevated oxidative stress and inflammation were associated with activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 kinase, resulting in increased hepatocyte apoptosis in Ppara-null mice fed a HFD. These results, with increased steatosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation observed in Ppara-null mice fed a HFD, demonstrate that inhibition of PPARα functions may increase susceptibility to high fat-induced NASH.