Recombinant Mycobacterium strains such as recombinant BCG (rBCG) have received considerable attention for the HIV-1 vaccine development. Recently, we described a temperature-sensitive Mycobacterium paragordonae (Mpg) strain as a novel live tuberculosis vaccine that is safer and showed an enhanced protective effect against mycobacterial infection compared to BCG. We studied the possibility of developing a vaccine against HIV-1 infection using rMpg strain expressing the p24 antigen (rMpg-p24). We observed that rMpg-p24 can induce an increased p24 expression in infected antigen presenting cells (APCs) compared to rBCG-p24. We also observed that rMpg-p24 can induce enhanced p24 specific immune responses in vaccinated mice as evidenced by increased p24-specific T lymphocyte proliferation, gamma interferon induction, antibody production and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Furthermore, an rMpg-p24 prime and plasmid DNA boost showed an increased CTL response and antibody production compared to rBCG or rMpg alone. In summary, our study indicates that a live rMpg-p24 strain induced enhanced immune responses against HIV-1 Gag in vaccinated mice. Thus, rMpg-p24 may have potential as a preventive prime vaccine in a heterologous prime-boost regimen for HIV-1 infection.