Photoacoustic imaging for differential diagnosis of benign polyps versus malignant polyps of the gallbladder: A preliminary study

Hee Dong Chae, Jae Young Lee, Jin-Young Jang, Jin Ho Chang, Jeeun Kang, Mee Joo Kang, Joon Koo Han

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Objective: To investigate the feasibility of ex vivo multispectral photoacoustic (PA) imaging in differentiating cholesterol versus neoplastic polyps, and benign versus malignant polyps, of the gallbladder. Materials and Methods: A total of 38 surgically confirmed gallbladder polyps (24 cholesterol polyps, 4 adenomas, and 10 adenocarcinomas) from 38 patients were prospectively included in this study. The surgical specimens were set on a gel pad immersed in a saline-filled container. The PA intensities of polyps were then measured, using two separate wavelength intervals (421–647 nm and 692–917 nm). Mann-Whitney U test was performed for the comparison of normalized PA intensities between the cholesterol and neoplastic polyps, and between the benign and malignant polyps. Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted for the comparison of normalized PA intensities among the cholesterol polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas. Results: A significant difference was observed in the normalized PA intensities between the cholesterol and neoplastic polyps at 459 nm (median, 1.00 vs. 0.73; p = 0.032). Comparing the benign and malignant polyps, there were significant differences in the normalized PA intensities at 765 nm (median, 0.67 vs. 0.78; p = 0.013), 787 nm (median, 0.65 vs. 0.77; p = 0.034), and 853 nm (median, 0.59 vs. 0.85; p = 0.028). The comparison of the normalized PA intensities among cholesterol polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas demonstrated marginally significant differences at 765 nm (median, 0.67 vs. 0.66 vs. 0.78, respectively; p = 0.049). Conclusion: These preliminary results indicate that benign versus malignant gallbladder polyps might exhibit different spectral patterns on multispectral PA imaging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)821-827
Number of pages7
JournalKorean Journal of Radiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2017


  • Gallbladder neoplasm
  • Gallbladder polyp
  • Neoplastic polyp
  • Photoacoustic technique

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