Non-association between low vitamin d levels and aeroallergen-positivity evaluated using multiple allergen simultaneous test in Korean adults

Jee Hye Wee, Sung Woo Cho, Jeong Whun Kim, Chae Seo Rhee

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Background: Studies on the association between vitamin D levels and allergen sensitization have reported conflicting results. We aimed to evaluate the association between low vitamin D levels and sensitization to 59 aeroallergens in Korean adults. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) measurements of participants (n = 57,467) in a healthcare center between May 2003 and June 2020. Serum 25(OH)D levels were categorized as follows: severe deficiency (< 10 ng/mL), deficiency (10 to < 20 ng/mL), insufficiency (20 to < 30 ng/mL), and sufficiency (≥ 30 ng/mL). Among all subjects, 1277 simultaneously underwent the multiple allergen simultaneous test. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to estimate coefficients and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between serum vitamin D deficiency and aeroallergen sensitization after adjustment for potential confounders. Subgroup analyses were conducted for the types of aeroallergen (house dust mites, pollens, animal dander, foods, cockroach, and fungus). Results: Vitamin D deficiency, defined as serum 25(OH)D level < 20 ng/mL, was noted in 56.4% of participants. There were significant differences in serum 25(OH)D levels according to sex, age, season, and bone mineral density (all P < 0.001). In multiple linear regression analyses, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in young subjects (adjusted coefficient [95% CI], 0.188 [0.101, 0.275]) and during winter (− 4.114 [− 6.528, − 1.699]). However, no significant association was observed between serum 25(OH)D levels and allergen sensitization (adjusted coefficients [95% CI], − 0.211 [− 1.989, 1.567], P = 0.816). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, male sex, young age, and winter season were significant risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. However, allergen sensitization showed no significant association with 25(OD)D levels after adjusting for confounders (adjusted OR [95% CI], 1.037 [0.642, 1.674] in insufficiency; 0.910 [0.573, 1.445] in deficiency; 0.869 [0.298, 2.539] in severe deficiency groups, P for trend = 0.334). There were consistent findings across subgroups regarding type of aeroallergen sensitized. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent but was not significantly associated with aeroallergen sensitization in Korean adults. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study to evaluate the association between vitamin D deficiency and sensitization to 59 different aeroallergens.

Original languageEnglish
Article number23
JournalAllergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Allergy and immunology
  • Avitaminosis
  • Health care surveys
  • Population surveillance
  • Vitamin D

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