Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection have a close association with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is characterized by metabolic dysfunction in NAFLD. We investigated the synergistic effects of NAFLD/MAFLD and Hp infection on the risk of arterial stiffness in an asymptomatic population. Methods: We included individuals who underwent abdominal ultrasonography, anti-Hp IgG antibody evaluations and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) during health screening tests between January 2013 and December 2017. Arterial stiffness was defined using CAVI. A logistic regression model was used to analyze the independent and synergistic effects of NAFLD/MAFLD and Hp infection on the risk of arterial stiffness. Results: Among 3,195 subjects (mean age 54.7 years, 68.5% male), the prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 36.4%. In the multivariate analysis, subjects with NAFLD but without Hp infection and those with both NAFLD and Hp infection had a significantly higher risk of increased arterial stiffness [odds ratio (OR) 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–2.26, and OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.63–3.06, respectively], than subjects without Hp infection and NAFLD. Regarding MAFLD, Hp infection additively increased the risk of arterial stiffness in subjects with MAFLD (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.64–2.78). Conclusions: An interactive effect of Hp infection on the risk of arterial stiffness in individuals with NAFLD/MAFLD was observed. Hp infection additively increases the risk of arterial stiffness in subjects with NAFLD or MAFLD.
- arterial stiffness
- hepatic steatosis