Navigation of frameless fixation for gamma knife radiosurgery using fixed augmented reality

Hyeong Cheol Moon, Sang Joon Park, Young Deok Kim, Kyung Min Kim, Ho Kang, Eun Jung Lee, Min Sung Kim, Jin Wook Kim, Yong Hwy Kim, Chul Kee Park, Young Gyu Kim, Yun Sik Dho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Augmented reality (AR) offers a new medical treatment approach. We aimed to evaluate frameless (mask) fixation navigation using a 3D-printed patient model with fixed-AR technology for gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Fixed-AR navigation was developed using the inside-out method with visual inertial odometry algorithms, and the flexible Quick Response marker was created for object-feature recognition. Virtual 3D-patient models for AR-rendering were created via 3D-scanning utilizing TrueDepth and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to generate a new GammaKnife Icon™ model. A 3D-printed patient model included fiducial markers, and virtual 3D-patient models were used to validate registration accuracy. Registration accuracy between initial frameless fixation and re-fixation navigated fixed-AR was validated through visualization and quantitative method. The quantitative method was validated through set-up errors, fiducial marker coordinates, and high-definition motion management (HDMM) values. A 3D-printed model and virtual models were correctly overlapped under frameless fixation. Virtual models from both 3D-scanning and CBCT were enough to tolerate the navigated frameless re-fixation. Although the CBCT virtual model consistently delivered more accurate results, 3D-scanning was sufficient. Frameless re-fixation accuracy navigated in virtual models had mean set-up errors within 1 mm and 1.5° in all axes. Mean fiducial marker differences from coordinates in virtual models were within 2.5 mm in all axes, and mean 3D errors were within 3 mm. Mean HDMM difference values in virtual models were within 1.5 mm of initial HDMM values. The variability from navigation fixed-AR is enough to consider repositioning frameless fixation without CBCT scanning for treating patients fractionated with large multiple metastases lesions (> 3 cm) who have difficulty enduring long beam-on time. This system could be applied to novel GKRS navigation for frameless fixation with reduced preparation time.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4486
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


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