Moxifloxacin-Based Extended Depth-of-Field Fluorescence Microscopy for Real-Time Conjunctival Goblet Cell Examination

Jungbin Lee, Seonghan Kim, Jeongho Kim, Byeong Jae Son, Chang Ho Yoon, Hong Kyun Kim, Ki Hean Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Conjunctival goblet cells (CGCs) are mucin-secreting cells in the eye and play essential roles for ocular surface homeostasis. Since various ocular surface pathologies are related to CGC dysfunction, CGC examination is important for the evaluation of ocular surface conditions. Recently we introduced moxifloxacin-based fluorescence microscopy (MBFM) for non-invasive CGC imaging. However, the imaging speed was up to 1 frame per second (fps) and needed to be improved for clinical applications. In this study, we developed a high-speed moxifloxacin-based, extended depth-of-field (EDOF) microscopy system that operates at a maximum imaging speed of 15 fps. The system used a deformable mirror for the high-speed axial sweeping of focal plane during single-frame acquisitions. The acquired images contained both in-focus and out-of-focus information, and deconvolution was used to filter the in-focus information. The system had a DOF of 800 $\mu \text{m}$ , field-of-view of 1.2 mm $\times1.2$ mm, and resolution of $2.3~\mu \text{m}$. Its performance was demonstrated by real-time, breathing-motion-insensitive CGC imaging of mouse and rabbit models, in vivo. High-speed EDOF microscopy has potentials for non-invasive, real-time CGC examinations of human subjects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2004-2008
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2022


  • Extended depth-of-field
  • conjunctival goblet cell
  • fluorescence microscopy
  • high-speed imaging
  • ocular surface diseases


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