Background & Aims: Recently, metabolic dysfunction–associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), rather than nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), was proposed to better describe liver disease associated with metabolic dysfunction (MD). In this study, we attempted to investigate the impact of MAFLD on pregnancy complications. Methods: The current study is a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective cohort designed to examine the risk of NAFLD during pregnancy. In the first trimester, enrolled pregnant women were evaluated for hepatic steatosis by liver ultrasonography, and blood samples were collected for biochemical measurements. The study population was divided into 3 groups: no NAFLD, hepatic steatosis but without metabolic dysfunction (non-MD NAFLD), and MAFLD. The primary outcome was the subsequent development of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy-associated hypertension, preterm birth, and fetal growth abnormalities. Results: The study population consisted of 1744 pregnant women, including 1523 with no NAFLD, 43 with non-MD NAFLD, and 178 with MAFLD. The risk of subsequent development of adverse pregnancy outcomes was higher in MAFLD than in non-MD NAFLD (adjusted odds ratio, 4.03; 95% CI, 1.68–9.67), whereas the risk was not significantly different between no NAFLD and non-MD NAFLD. Among women with no NAFLD, the presence of MD increased the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, women with MAFLD were at higher risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes than women with no NAFLD without MD or those with no NAFLD with MD. Conclusions: In pregnant women, MAFLD may be associated with an increased risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2542-2550.e8
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes
  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
  • Metabolic Dysfunction–Associated Fatty Liver Disease
  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease


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