Metabolic Biomarkers In Midtrimester Maternal Plasma Can Accurately Predict Adverse Pregnancy Outcome in Patients with SLE

Seung Mi Lee, Eun Mi Lee, Jin Kyun Park, Hae Sun Jeon, Sohee Oh, Subeen Hong, Young Mi Jung, Byoung Jae Kim, Sun Min Kim, Errol R. Norwitz, Eun Bong Lee, Souphaphone Louangsenlath, Chan Wook Park, Jong Kwan Jun, Joong Shin Park, Do Yup Lee

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Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Accurate prediction of APO is critical to identify, counsel, and manage these high-risk patients. We undertook this study to identify novel biomarkers in mid-trimester maternal plasma to identify pregnant patients with SLE at increased risk of APOs. The study population consisted of pregnant women whose plasma was taken in mid-trimester and available for metabolic signature: (1) SLE and normal pregnancy outcome (Group 1, n = 21); (2) SLE with APO (Group 2, n = 12); and (3) healthy pregnant controls (Group 3, n = 10). Mid-trimester maternal plasma was analyzed for integrative profiles of primary metabolite and phospholipid using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) and liquid chromatography Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS). For performance comparison and validation, plasma samples were analyzed for sFlt-1/PlGF ratio. In the study population, APO developed in 12 of 33 women with SLE (36%). Metabolite profiling of mid-trimester maternal plasma samples identified a total of 327 metabolites using GC-TOF MS and LC-Orbitrap MS. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed clear discrimination among the profiles of SLE groups and healthy pregnant controls (Groups 1/2 vs. 3). Moreover, direct comparison between Groups 1 and 2 demonstrated that 4 primary metabolites and 13 lipid molecules were significantly different. Binary logistic regression analysis suggested a potential metabolic biomarker model that could discriminate Groups 1 and 2. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed the best predictability for APO with the combination model of two metabolites (LysoPC C22:5 and tryptophan) with AUC of 0.944, comparable to the AUC of sFlt-1/PlGF (AUC 0.857). In conclusion, metabolic biomarkers in mid-trimester maternal plasma can accurately predict APO in patients with SLE.

Original languageEnglish
Article number15169
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2019

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