Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA) is globally treated with chemotherapy plus trastuzumab. Novel therapeutic strategies strive to not only optimize efficacy, but also limit toxicities. In MAHOGANY cohort A, margetuximab, an Fc-engineered, anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was combined with retifanlimab, an anti-programmed cell death protein 1 mAb, in the first-line HER2-positive/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive GEA. Patients and methods: MAHOGANY cohort A part 1 is a single-arm trial to evaluate margetuximab plus retifanlimab in patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry 3+, PD-L1-positive (combined positive score ≥1%), and non-microsatellite instability-high tumors. Primary objectives for cohort A were safety/tolerability and the confirmed objective response rate (ORR). Results: As of 3 August 2021, 43 patients were enrolled and received margetuximab/retifanlimab. Nine grade 3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were reported in eight (18.6%) patients and eight serious TRAEs in seven (16.3%) patients. There were no grade 4/5 TRAEs. Three patients discontinued margetuximab/retifanlimab because of immune-related adverse events. The ORR by independent assessment was 53% [21/40 (95% confidence interval (CI) 36.1-68.5)], with a median duration of response of 10.3 months (95% CI 4.6-not evaluable); disease control rate was 73% [29/40 (95% CI 56.1-85.4)]. The study sponsor discontinued the study in advance of the planned enrollment when it became apparent that the study design would no longer meet the requirements for drug approval because of recent advances in the treatment of GEA. Conclusions: The chemotherapy-free regimen of combined margetuximab/retifanlimab as first-line treatment in double biomarker-selected patients demonstrated a favorable toxicity profile compared with historical outcomes using chemotherapy plus trastuzumab. The ORR observed in this study compares favorably versus ORR observed with other chemotherapy-free approaches.
- first-line therapy
- human epidermal growth factor receptor 2
- metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma
- programmed death-ligand 1