Background: Madelung disease is a rare lipid metabolic disorder, and most cases are sporadically reported. There are currently no systematic reviews summarizing the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of this disease. The purpose of the current article is to extract and analyze the existing evidence concerning Madelung disease derived from case series in order to provide adequate treatments for patients based on a more comprehensive understanding of the disease. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were queried for relevant articles using the search terms “Madelung disease,” “multiple symmetric lipomatosis,” “Launois-Bensaude syndrome” and synonyms until Aug 31,2020. Data statistics of Madelung disease epidemiology and clinical characteristics are summarized in different tables or charts with Microsoft Office software. Results: Patients exhibiting Madelung disease were mostly located in Europe, although some records existed in Asia as well. Average patient age was between 45 and 65 years old. Type I was the most common form of the disease, and the neck was the most common location for tumors. Madelung disease is associated with various metabolic disorders, and hematoma and seroma were the most common complications. Overall recurrence rate was 18.3%, with similar recurrence rates after lipectomy and liposuction. Fewer complications occurred after liposuction compared with lipectomy, but relapse was more common after liposuction. Conclusion: Madelung disease consists of specific epidemiological and clinical characteristics, knowledge of which can be helpful for diagnosis and cognition. Lipectomy and liposuction are considered to be the most effective treatment methods for Madelung disease; however, choice of surgery should be based on comprehensive consideration of the disease, such as severity, mass location, and patient expectations. Level of Evidence IV: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
- Body mass index
- Launois-Bensaude syndrome
- Madelung disease
- Multiple symmetric lipomatosis