Long-Term Follow-Up of Ground-Glass Nodules After 5 Years of Stability

Hyun Woo Lee, Kwang Nam Jin, Jung Kyu Lee, Deog Kyeom Kim, Hee Soon Chung, Eun Young Heo, Seung Ho Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Small ground-glass nodules (GGNs) or those with an indeterminate risk on low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest are recommended at 5-year follow-up, but the rationale for follow-up beyond 5 years is unclear. Methods: An observational study was conducted to investigate the natural course of GGNs that had been stable for 5 years by LDCT over 10 years. All eligible GGNs were detected during regular health checkups. Baseline characteristics were compared between GGNs with and without growth. Risk factors for GGN growth were evaluated. Results: A total of 208 GGNs were detected in 160 participants. GGN growth was identified in 27 (13.0%) GGNs during a follow-up of 136 months on LDCT scans. In approximately 95% of these GGNs, the initial size was less than 6 mm, with 3.2 mm of growth over 8.5 years. Biopsies were performed in 3 of 27 GGNs, revealing adenocarcinoma. In 8 of 27 cases, GGN growth preceded the development of a new solid component. In a multivariate analysis, bubble lucency (p = 0.001), a history of cancer other than lung cancer (p = 0.036), and development of a new solid component (p < 0.001) were significant risk factors for GGN growth. Conclusions: GGNs should not be ignored, even when smaller than 6 mm and stable for 5 years, especially when a new solid component appears during follow-up.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1370-1377
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Thoracic Oncology
Volume14
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2019

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Glass
Growth
Tomography
Lung Neoplasms
Growth and Development
Observational Studies
Adenocarcinoma
Thorax
Multivariate Analysis
Biopsy

Keywords

  • Diagnostic imaging
  • Follow-up study
  • Ground-glass nodule
  • Subsolid nodule
  • X ray computed tomography

Cite this

Lee, Hyun Woo ; Jin, Kwang Nam ; Lee, Jung Kyu ; Kim, Deog Kyeom ; Chung, Hee Soon ; Heo, Eun Young ; Choi, Seung Ho. / Long-Term Follow-Up of Ground-Glass Nodules After 5 Years of Stability. In: Journal of Thoracic Oncology. 2019 ; Vol. 14, No. 8. pp. 1370-1377.
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abstract = "Introduction: Small ground-glass nodules (GGNs) or those with an indeterminate risk on low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest are recommended at 5-year follow-up, but the rationale for follow-up beyond 5 years is unclear. Methods: An observational study was conducted to investigate the natural course of GGNs that had been stable for 5 years by LDCT over 10 years. All eligible GGNs were detected during regular health checkups. Baseline characteristics were compared between GGNs with and without growth. Risk factors for GGN growth were evaluated. Results: A total of 208 GGNs were detected in 160 participants. GGN growth was identified in 27 (13.0{\%}) GGNs during a follow-up of 136 months on LDCT scans. In approximately 95{\%} of these GGNs, the initial size was less than 6 mm, with 3.2 mm of growth over 8.5 years. Biopsies were performed in 3 of 27 GGNs, revealing adenocarcinoma. In 8 of 27 cases, GGN growth preceded the development of a new solid component. In a multivariate analysis, bubble lucency (p = 0.001), a history of cancer other than lung cancer (p = 0.036), and development of a new solid component (p < 0.001) were significant risk factors for GGN growth. Conclusions: GGNs should not be ignored, even when smaller than 6 mm and stable for 5 years, especially when a new solid component appears during follow-up.",
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Long-Term Follow-Up of Ground-Glass Nodules After 5 Years of Stability. / Lee, Hyun Woo; Jin, Kwang Nam; Lee, Jung Kyu; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Chung, Hee Soon; Heo, Eun Young; Choi, Seung Ho.

In: Journal of Thoracic Oncology, Vol. 14, No. 8, 01.08.2019, p. 1370-1377.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Long-Term Follow-Up of Ground-Glass Nodules After 5 Years of Stability

AU - Lee, Hyun Woo

AU - Jin, Kwang Nam

AU - Lee, Jung Kyu

AU - Kim, Deog Kyeom

AU - Chung, Hee Soon

AU - Heo, Eun Young

AU - Choi, Seung Ho

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N2 - Introduction: Small ground-glass nodules (GGNs) or those with an indeterminate risk on low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest are recommended at 5-year follow-up, but the rationale for follow-up beyond 5 years is unclear. Methods: An observational study was conducted to investigate the natural course of GGNs that had been stable for 5 years by LDCT over 10 years. All eligible GGNs were detected during regular health checkups. Baseline characteristics were compared between GGNs with and without growth. Risk factors for GGN growth were evaluated. Results: A total of 208 GGNs were detected in 160 participants. GGN growth was identified in 27 (13.0%) GGNs during a follow-up of 136 months on LDCT scans. In approximately 95% of these GGNs, the initial size was less than 6 mm, with 3.2 mm of growth over 8.5 years. Biopsies were performed in 3 of 27 GGNs, revealing adenocarcinoma. In 8 of 27 cases, GGN growth preceded the development of a new solid component. In a multivariate analysis, bubble lucency (p = 0.001), a history of cancer other than lung cancer (p = 0.036), and development of a new solid component (p < 0.001) were significant risk factors for GGN growth. Conclusions: GGNs should not be ignored, even when smaller than 6 mm and stable for 5 years, especially when a new solid component appears during follow-up.

AB - Introduction: Small ground-glass nodules (GGNs) or those with an indeterminate risk on low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest are recommended at 5-year follow-up, but the rationale for follow-up beyond 5 years is unclear. Methods: An observational study was conducted to investigate the natural course of GGNs that had been stable for 5 years by LDCT over 10 years. All eligible GGNs were detected during regular health checkups. Baseline characteristics were compared between GGNs with and without growth. Risk factors for GGN growth were evaluated. Results: A total of 208 GGNs were detected in 160 participants. GGN growth was identified in 27 (13.0%) GGNs during a follow-up of 136 months on LDCT scans. In approximately 95% of these GGNs, the initial size was less than 6 mm, with 3.2 mm of growth over 8.5 years. Biopsies were performed in 3 of 27 GGNs, revealing adenocarcinoma. In 8 of 27 cases, GGN growth preceded the development of a new solid component. In a multivariate analysis, bubble lucency (p = 0.001), a history of cancer other than lung cancer (p = 0.036), and development of a new solid component (p < 0.001) were significant risk factors for GGN growth. Conclusions: GGNs should not be ignored, even when smaller than 6 mm and stable for 5 years, especially when a new solid component appears during follow-up.

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