The diagnostic criteria were established for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common vestibular disorder worldwide, by the Barany Society in 2015. This marked an important milestone in the diagnosis and treatment of BPPV. However, there still remain uncertainties and ambiguities regarding the clinical features and pathophysiology of BPPV, and its clinical variants. In this manuscript, we will discuss 1) the emerging and controversial syndromes of BPPV (i.e., canalolithiasis of the anterior canal, cupulolthiasis of the posterior canal, and lithiasis of multiple canals) with updates, 2) atypical nystagmus according to the canal involved (e.g., nystagmus induced by head position changes in the pitch plane in horizontal canal BPPV, and positional downbeat nystagmus in posterior canal BPPV), 3) persistent geotropic positional nystagmus. Consideration of these uncommon types and manifestations of BPPV would broaden our understanding of BPPV pathomechanisms and allow differentiation from central vertigo and nystagmus.
- Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
- Semicircular canal