Insulin resistance and the increased risk for smell dysfunction in US adults

Jin Young Min, Kyoung-Bok Min

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Over 24% of older American adults (approximately 14 million) are estimated to have reduced olfactory sensitivity. Previous studies have provided evidence that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or its complications are at increased risk of olfactory dysfunction. We therefore investigated whether smell dysfunction was associated with DM-related biomarkers, including fasting blood glucose, glycohemoglobin, serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), in older US adults. Methods: Data from 9,678 older adults who had participated in the 2013 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were available for this study. We used the eight-item, self-administered scratch-and-sniff smell test (Sensonics, Inc., Haddon Heights, NJ) for assessing smell. Smell dysfunction was defined as the condition with an odor identification score of ≤ 5. Results: Of the 978 participants, 20% of older adults (n = 193) were defined as having smell dysfunction. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, participants in the highest HOMA-IR quintile had approximately two-fold increased odds (odds ratio = 2.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.25–4.05) of smell dysfunction compared with those in the lowest HOMA-IR quintile. In contrast, the odds of smell dysfunction were not associated with the quintiles for fasting blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), or serum insulin levels. Conclusion: We found a significant association between smell dysfunction and severe insulin resistance in older US adults. Our data suggests that insulin resistance may be mechanistically linked to loss of smell function. Level of Evidence: 4. Laryngoscope, 128:1992–1996, 2018.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1992-1996
Number of pages5
JournalLaryngoscope
Volume128
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2018

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Smell
Insulin Resistance
Blood Glucose
Fasting
Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin
Laryngoscopes
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Nutrition Surveys
Serum
Homeostasis
Biomarkers
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals

Keywords

  • diabetes mellitus
  • olfaction
  • quality of life

Cite this

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title = "Insulin resistance and the increased risk for smell dysfunction in US adults",
abstract = "Objective: Over 24{\%} of older American adults (approximately 14 million) are estimated to have reduced olfactory sensitivity. Previous studies have provided evidence that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or its complications are at increased risk of olfactory dysfunction. We therefore investigated whether smell dysfunction was associated with DM-related biomarkers, including fasting blood glucose, glycohemoglobin, serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), in older US adults. Methods: Data from 9,678 older adults who had participated in the 2013 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were available for this study. We used the eight-item, self-administered scratch-and-sniff smell test (Sensonics, Inc., Haddon Heights, NJ) for assessing smell. Smell dysfunction was defined as the condition with an odor identification score of ≤ 5. Results: Of the 978 participants, 20{\%} of older adults (n = 193) were defined as having smell dysfunction. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, participants in the highest HOMA-IR quintile had approximately two-fold increased odds (odds ratio = 2.25; 95{\%} confidence interval: 1.25–4.05) of smell dysfunction compared with those in the lowest HOMA-IR quintile. In contrast, the odds of smell dysfunction were not associated with the quintiles for fasting blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), or serum insulin levels. Conclusion: We found a significant association between smell dysfunction and severe insulin resistance in older US adults. Our data suggests that insulin resistance may be mechanistically linked to loss of smell function. Level of Evidence: 4. Laryngoscope, 128:1992–1996, 2018.",
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Insulin resistance and the increased risk for smell dysfunction in US adults. / Min, Jin Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok.

In: Laryngoscope, Vol. 128, No. 9, 01.09.2018, p. 1992-1996.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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AB - Objective: Over 24% of older American adults (approximately 14 million) are estimated to have reduced olfactory sensitivity. Previous studies have provided evidence that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or its complications are at increased risk of olfactory dysfunction. We therefore investigated whether smell dysfunction was associated with DM-related biomarkers, including fasting blood glucose, glycohemoglobin, serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), in older US adults. Methods: Data from 9,678 older adults who had participated in the 2013 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were available for this study. We used the eight-item, self-administered scratch-and-sniff smell test (Sensonics, Inc., Haddon Heights, NJ) for assessing smell. Smell dysfunction was defined as the condition with an odor identification score of ≤ 5. Results: Of the 978 participants, 20% of older adults (n = 193) were defined as having smell dysfunction. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, participants in the highest HOMA-IR quintile had approximately two-fold increased odds (odds ratio = 2.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.25–4.05) of smell dysfunction compared with those in the lowest HOMA-IR quintile. In contrast, the odds of smell dysfunction were not associated with the quintiles for fasting blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), or serum insulin levels. Conclusion: We found a significant association between smell dysfunction and severe insulin resistance in older US adults. Our data suggests that insulin resistance may be mechanistically linked to loss of smell function. Level of Evidence: 4. Laryngoscope, 128:1992–1996, 2018.

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