Purpose: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a complex immunological condition, and novel experimental modalities are required to explore various clinical and pathophysiological endotypes; mere evaluation of nasal polyp (NP) status is inadequate. Therefore, we collected patient nasal secretions on filter paper and characterized the proteomes. Methods: We performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS in the data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) modes. Nasal secretions were collected from 10 controls, 10 CRS without NPs (CRSsNP) and 10 CRS with NPs (CRSwNP). We performed Orbitrap MS-based proteomic analysis in the DDA (5 controls, 5 CRSsNP and 5 CRSwNP) and the DIA (5 controls, 5 CRSsNP and 5 CRSwNP) modes, followed by a statistical analysis and a hierarchical clustering to identify differentially expressed proteins in the 3 groups. Results: We identified 2,020 proteins in nasal secretions. Canonical pathway analysis and gene ontology (GO) evaluation revealed that interleukin (IL)-7, IL-9, IL-17A and IL-22 signaling and neutrophil-mediated immune responses like neutrophil degranulation and activation were significantly increased in CRSwNP compared to control. The GO terms related to the iron ion metabolism that may be associated with CRS and NP development. Conclusions: Collection of nasal secretions on the filter paper is a practical and non-invasive method for in-depth study of nasal proteomics. Our proteomic signatures also support that Asian NPs could be characterized as non-eosinophilic inflammation features. Therefore, the proteomic profiling of nasal secretions from CRS patients may enhance our understanding of CRS endotypes.
- Nasal polyps