Increasing use of personal listening devices has been accompanied by increase in the prevalence of hearing loss (HL) among youth in Korea, as in other countries. Auditory processing disorder (APD) is one of the main factors affecting academic achievement at school. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HL in students attending general middle- and high schools and compare the findings with the APD survey results. From June 1 to December 31, 2016, Korean adolescents (n = 2,791) in the first years of middle- and high school underwent audiometric testing and otologic examination and completed questionnaires on APD. The survey was sponsored by the Korean Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and the Korean Otology Society. The prevalence of speech-frequency hearing loss (SFHL) and high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL) in the poorer ear was 11.6% and 10.3%, respectively, among Korean adolescents. We analysed data from the Scale of Auditory Behaviors, Fisher’s Auditory Problems Checklist, and KNISE-Auditory Behavioral Checklist and compared these with the results of hearing tests. We observed positive correlations among the APD questionnaire results and mean hearing levels. This study suggested that hearing loss, especially bilateral high-frequency hearing loss, may affect central auditory processing.