Immunohistochemical Staining to Identify Concomitant Systemic Mastocytosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with RUNX1::RUNX1T1

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Systemic mastocytosis with associated hematological neoplasm (SM-AHN) poses diagnostic challenges because of the coexistence of atypical mast cell proliferation and hematological neoplasms. We assessed the presence of SM-AHN in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with RUNX1::RUNX1T1 from 2014 to 2020. Bone marrow (BM) samples were evaluated for mast cell aggregates using CD117 and CD25 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The KIT D816V variant burden at diagnosis and post induction was assessed using droplet digital PCR. Among 23 patients diagnosed as having AML with RUNX1::RUNX1T1, four (17.4%) were also diagnosed as having SM-AHN. No significant differences in clinical characteristics or overall survival (P=0.565) were observed between patients with or without SM-AHN, except for the presence of KIT variants (P=0.040). After induction therapy, IHC staining revealed the presence of mast cell aggregates in the BM, and the KIT D816V variant burden decreased with decreasing blast count and was similar in BM aspirates, smear slides, and sections. Concomitant SM-AHN was not infrequent in AML patients with RUNX1::RUNX1T1. This study showed the importance of CD117 and CD25 IHC staining after induction chemotherapy for SM-AHN screening, especially in patients with KIT variants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)678-682
Number of pages5
JournalAnnals of laboratory medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Acute myeloid leukemia with RUNX1::RUNX1T1
  • Droplet digital PCR
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • KIT variant
  • Systemic Mastocytosis


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