Kudoa septempunctata is a myxozoan parasite that causes food poisoning in individuals consuming olive flounder. The present study aimed to investigate the currently insufficiently elucidated early molecular mechanisms of inflammatory responses in the intestine owing to parasite ingestion. After Kudoa spores were isolated from olive flounder, HT29 cells were exposed to spores identified to be alive using SYTO-9 and propidium iodide staining or to antigens of Kudoa spores (KsAg). IL-1ß, IL-8, TNF-α and NFκB1 expression and NF-κB activation were assessed using real-time PCR, cytokine array and western blotting. The immunofluorescence of FITC-conjugated lectins, results of ligand binding assays using Mincle-Fc and IgG-Fc, CLEC4E expressions in response to KsAg stimulation, and Mincle-dependent NF-B activation were assessed to clarify the early immunetriggering mechanism. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, GM-CSF and TNF-α), chemokines (IL-8, CCL2, CCL5 and CXCL1) and NF-B activation (pNF-κB/NF-κB) in HT29 cells increased following stimulation by KsAg. The immunofluorescence results of spores and lectins (concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin) suggested the importance of Mincle in molecular recognition between Kudoa spores and intestinal cells. Practically, data for Mincle-Fc and KsAg binding affinity, CLEC4E mRNA expression, Mincle immunofluorescence staining and hMincledependent NF-κB activation demonstrated the involvement of Mincle in the early immune-triggering mechanism. The present study newly elucidated that the molecular recognition and immune-triggering mechanism of K. septempunctata are associated with Mincle on human intestinal epithelial cells.
|Original language||American English|
|Number of pages||483|
|State||Published - 30 Sep 2020|