HLA-A*24:02 increase the risk of allopurinol-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in HLA-B*58:01 carriers in a Korean population; a multicenter cross-sectional case-control study

Mi Yeong Kim, James Yun, Dong Yoon Kang, Tae Hee Kim, Min Kyung Oh, Sunggun Lee, Min Gyu Kang, Young Hee Nam, Jeong Hee Choi, Min Suk Yang, Seung Seok Han, Hajeong Lee, Hyun Jai Cho, Jaeseok Yang, Kook Hwan Oh, Yon Su Kim, Jae Woo Jung, Kye Hwa Lee, Hye Ryun Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: HLA-B*58:01 is a well-known risk factor for allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). However, only a minority of HLA-B*58:01 carriers suffer SCARs after taking allopurinol. The aim of this study was to investigate subsidiary genetic markers that could identify those at further increased risk of developing allopurinol-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) in subjects with HLA-B*58:01. Methods: Subjects with B*58:01 were enrolled (21 allopurinol-induced DRESS and 52 allopurinol-tolerant control). HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 alleles were compared. Comparison of risk between HLAs and allopurinol-induced SCAR in separate populations was performed to support the results. Kruskal-Wallis test, Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the risk of SCAR development. Results: Frequencies of A*24:02 (71.4 vs. 17.3%, p < 0.001, odds ratio [OR] = 12.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6–39.2) were significantly higher in B*58:01 (+) DRESS than B*58:01 (+) tolerant controls. In addition, DRB1*13:02 further increased the risk of DRESS. The phenotype frequency of A*24:02/DRB1*13:02 was significantly higher in the B*58:01 (+) DRESS group than in the B*58:01 (+) tolerant controls (52.4% vs. 5.8%, p < 0.001, OR, 66.0; 95% CI, 6.1–716.2). In 2782 allopurinol user cohort, the overall prevalence of DRESS was 0.22%, which increased to 1.62% and 2.86% in the presence of B*58:01 and B*58:01/A*24:02, respectively. Conclusion: The additional secondary screening with A*24:02 and DRB1*13:02 alleles may identify those at further increased risk of allopurinol-induced DRESS in B*58:01 carriers.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12193
JournalClinical and Translational Allergy
Volume12
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Keywords

  • HLA-A24 antigen
  • Koreans
  • allopurinol
  • drug hypersensitivity syndrome
  • histocompatibility antigens class I

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