High salt intake is associated with atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia

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Abstract

Background: Although several studies have investigated excessive salt intake as a risk factor for gastric precancerous lesions, such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, the evidence is insufficient to make a conclusion. We evaluated the association between gastric precancerous lesions and salt intake. Methods: From 2008 to 2015, the medical records of 728 subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and sodium excretion in 24-hour urine tests were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-six subjects were excluded due to diuretics use (n55), diagnosis with a gastric neoplasm (n4), or the cases of intestinal metaplasia in the absence of atrophy (n 7), so 662 subjects were included. Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were diagnosed by endoscopic findings. The subjects were grouped into three levels by tertiles of 24-hour urine sodium excretion. Results: A total of 192 (29.0%) had atrophic gastritis without intestinal metaplasia and 112 (16.9%) had atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. A total of 276 subjects (61.5%) were infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). In multivariate analyses, H. pylori infection [OR 14.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.12-28.22) was associated with atrophic gastritis without intestinal metaplasia. Highest levels of sodium excretion (OR 2.870; 95% CI, 1.34-6.14), heavy smoking (20 pack-years) (OR 2.75; 95% CI, 1.02-7.39), and H. pylori infection (OR 3.96; 95% CI, 2.02-7.76) were associated with atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. Conclusions: Our endoscopy-based study suggested that high salt intake could be associated with an increased risk of atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. Impact: Low salt diet might be helpful to prevent gastric carcinogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1133-1138
Number of pages6
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Volume26
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2017

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Atrophic Gastritis
Metaplasia
Salts
Helicobacter pylori
Confidence Intervals
Stomach
Sodium
Helicobacter Infections
Urine
Sodium-Restricted Diet
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Diuretics
Endoscopy
Stomach Neoplasms
Atrophy
Medical Records
Carcinogenesis
Multivariate Analysis
Smoking

Cite this

@article{9a877e3e454f43c3bcb3ee14da0c5ade,
title = "High salt intake is associated with atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia",
abstract = "Background: Although several studies have investigated excessive salt intake as a risk factor for gastric precancerous lesions, such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, the evidence is insufficient to make a conclusion. We evaluated the association between gastric precancerous lesions and salt intake. Methods: From 2008 to 2015, the medical records of 728 subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and sodium excretion in 24-hour urine tests were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-six subjects were excluded due to diuretics use (n55), diagnosis with a gastric neoplasm (n4), or the cases of intestinal metaplasia in the absence of atrophy (n 7), so 662 subjects were included. Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were diagnosed by endoscopic findings. The subjects were grouped into three levels by tertiles of 24-hour urine sodium excretion. Results: A total of 192 (29.0{\%}) had atrophic gastritis without intestinal metaplasia and 112 (16.9{\%}) had atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. A total of 276 subjects (61.5{\%}) were infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). In multivariate analyses, H. pylori infection [OR 14.17; 95{\%} confidence interval (CI), 7.12-28.22) was associated with atrophic gastritis without intestinal metaplasia. Highest levels of sodium excretion (OR 2.870; 95{\%} CI, 1.34-6.14), heavy smoking (20 pack-years) (OR 2.75; 95{\%} CI, 1.02-7.39), and H. pylori infection (OR 3.96; 95{\%} CI, 2.02-7.76) were associated with atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. Conclusions: Our endoscopy-based study suggested that high salt intake could be associated with an increased risk of atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. Impact: Low salt diet might be helpful to prevent gastric carcinogenesis.",
author = "Song, {Ji Hyun} and Kim, {Young Sun} and Heo, {Nam Ju} and Lim, {Joo Hyun} and Yang, {Sun Young} and Chung, {Goh Eun} and Joosung Kim",
year = "2017",
month = "7",
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doi = "10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-1024",
language = "English",
volume = "26",
pages = "1133--1138",
journal = "Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention",
issn = "1055-9965",
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number = "7",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - High salt intake is associated with atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia

AU - Song, Ji Hyun

AU - Kim, Young Sun

AU - Heo, Nam Ju

AU - Lim, Joo Hyun

AU - Yang, Sun Young

AU - Chung, Goh Eun

AU - Kim, Joosung

PY - 2017/7/1

Y1 - 2017/7/1

N2 - Background: Although several studies have investigated excessive salt intake as a risk factor for gastric precancerous lesions, such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, the evidence is insufficient to make a conclusion. We evaluated the association between gastric precancerous lesions and salt intake. Methods: From 2008 to 2015, the medical records of 728 subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and sodium excretion in 24-hour urine tests were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-six subjects were excluded due to diuretics use (n55), diagnosis with a gastric neoplasm (n4), or the cases of intestinal metaplasia in the absence of atrophy (n 7), so 662 subjects were included. Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were diagnosed by endoscopic findings. The subjects were grouped into three levels by tertiles of 24-hour urine sodium excretion. Results: A total of 192 (29.0%) had atrophic gastritis without intestinal metaplasia and 112 (16.9%) had atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. A total of 276 subjects (61.5%) were infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). In multivariate analyses, H. pylori infection [OR 14.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.12-28.22) was associated with atrophic gastritis without intestinal metaplasia. Highest levels of sodium excretion (OR 2.870; 95% CI, 1.34-6.14), heavy smoking (20 pack-years) (OR 2.75; 95% CI, 1.02-7.39), and H. pylori infection (OR 3.96; 95% CI, 2.02-7.76) were associated with atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. Conclusions: Our endoscopy-based study suggested that high salt intake could be associated with an increased risk of atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. Impact: Low salt diet might be helpful to prevent gastric carcinogenesis.

AB - Background: Although several studies have investigated excessive salt intake as a risk factor for gastric precancerous lesions, such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, the evidence is insufficient to make a conclusion. We evaluated the association between gastric precancerous lesions and salt intake. Methods: From 2008 to 2015, the medical records of 728 subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and sodium excretion in 24-hour urine tests were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-six subjects were excluded due to diuretics use (n55), diagnosis with a gastric neoplasm (n4), or the cases of intestinal metaplasia in the absence of atrophy (n 7), so 662 subjects were included. Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were diagnosed by endoscopic findings. The subjects were grouped into three levels by tertiles of 24-hour urine sodium excretion. Results: A total of 192 (29.0%) had atrophic gastritis without intestinal metaplasia and 112 (16.9%) had atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. A total of 276 subjects (61.5%) were infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). In multivariate analyses, H. pylori infection [OR 14.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.12-28.22) was associated with atrophic gastritis without intestinal metaplasia. Highest levels of sodium excretion (OR 2.870; 95% CI, 1.34-6.14), heavy smoking (20 pack-years) (OR 2.75; 95% CI, 1.02-7.39), and H. pylori infection (OR 3.96; 95% CI, 2.02-7.76) were associated with atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. Conclusions: Our endoscopy-based study suggested that high salt intake could be associated with an increased risk of atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. Impact: Low salt diet might be helpful to prevent gastric carcinogenesis.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85022335644&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-1024

DO - 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-1024

M3 - Article

C2 - 28341758

AN - SCOPUS:85022335644

VL - 26

SP - 1133

EP - 1138

JO - Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention

JF - Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention

SN - 1055-9965

IS - 7

ER -