Hepatocellular carcinoma: Texture analysis of preoperative computed tomography images can provide markers of tumor grade and disease-free survival

Jiseon Oh, Jeong Min Lee, Junghoan Park, Ijin Joo, Jeong Hee Yoon, Dong Ho Lee, Balaji Ganeshan, Joon Koo Han

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations


Objective: To investigate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) texture analysis (CTTA) in estimating histologic tumor grade and in predicting disease-free survival (DFS) after surgical resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods: Eighty-one patients with a single HCC who had undergone quadriphasic liver CT followed by surgical resection were enrolled. Texture analysis of tumors on preoperative CT images was performed using commercially available software. The mean, mean of positive pixels (MPP), entropy, kurtosis, skewness, and standard deviation (SD) of the pixel distribution histogram were derived with and without filtration. The texture features were then compared between groups classified according to histologic grade. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to determine the relationship between texture features and DFS. Results: SD and MPP quantified from fine to coarse textures on arterial-phase CT images showed significant positive associations with the histologic grade of HCC (p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis identified most CT texture features across the different filters from fine to coarse texture scales as significant univariate markers of DFS. Cox proportional hazards analysis identified skewness on arterial-phase images (fine texture scale, spatial scaling factor [SSF] 2.0, p < 0.001; medium texture scale, SSF 3.0, p < 0.001), tumor size (p = 0.001), microscopic vascular invasion (p = 0.034), rim arterial enhancement (p = 0.024), and peritumoral parenchymal enhancement (p = 0.010) as independent predictors of DFS. Conclusion: CTTA was demonstrated to provide texture features significantly correlated with higher tumor grade as well as predictive markers of DFS after surgical resection of HCCs in addition to other valuable imaging and clinico-pathologic parameters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)569-579
Number of pages11
JournalKorean Journal of Radiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2019


  • Computed tomography
  • Disease-free survival
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Prognosis
  • Recurrence
  • Texture analysis

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