Background and Aims: Despite increasing reports of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in multiple myeloma (MM), HBV reactivation in patients with resolved hepatitis B [hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative/anti-hepatitis B core antigen antibody (anti-HBc)-positive] is still poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to clarify its frequency and risk factors. Methods: A total of 230 MM patients with resolved hepatitis B were retrospectively reviewed for HBV reactivation and biochemical flare. Results: During a median 2.4 years of follow-up, HBV reactivation was diagnosed in 12 patients (5.2%). The cumulative rates of HBV reactivation at 2 years and 5 years were 5% and 8% respectively. A baseline anti-HBs-negative status (P = 0.033) and high-dose therapy/autologous stem-cell transplantation [HDT/ASCT (P = 0.025)] were significant risk factors that were positively associated with HBV reactivation. In subgroup analysis of patients treated with HDT/ASCT (n = 127), a baseline anti-HBs-negative status was the only significant risk factor for HBV reactivation (hazard ratio, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.47-14.7; P = 0.009). Discussion: These data show that evaluation of anti-HBc is needed for MM patients, and suggest that monitoring of HBV DNA should be considered for patients with resolved hepatitis B undergoing HDT/ASCT, especially those who are anti-HBs-negative.
- Hepatitis B reactivation
- Multiple myeloma