Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is on the rise as a cause of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). It has been suggested that platelet recovery can be achieved following successful microbial eradication, although, the exact pathophysiology has yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated the long-term effects of H. pylori eradication monotherapy on platelet count recovery in patients with ITP. H. pylori eradication was analysed in 61 ITP patients. Patients who maintained a complete response (CR) for more than six months were classified as sustained responders (SR). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 54.3% (75/138), and the success rate of eradication with first-line therapy was 71.4% (35/49). Patients who had achieved a CR at 2 months maintained a higher platelet count thereafter. At 1 year following eradication, platelet counts had increased 2.78 times in the eradicated group, 1.36 times in the sustained infection group, and 1.33 times in the no infection group compared with the baseline (P = 0.016).