Background: Breast density at mammography is an established risk factor for breast cancer, but it cannot be used to distinguish between glandular and fibrous tissue. Purpose: To evaluate the association between the glandular tissue component (GTC) at screening breast US and the risk of future breast cancer in women with dense breasts and the association between the GTC and lobular involution. Materials and Methods: Screening breast US examinations performed in women with no prior history of breast cancer and with dense breasts with negative findings from mammography from January 2012 to December 2015 were retrospectively identified. The GTC was reported as being minimal, mild, moderate, or marked at the time of the US examination. In women who had benign breast biopsy results, the degree of lobular involution in normal background tissue was categorized as not present, mild, moderate, or complete. The GTC-related breast cancer risk in women with a cancer diagnosis or follow-up after 6 months was estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression. Cumulative logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the GTC and lobular involution. Results: Among 8483 women (mean age, 49 years ± 8 [standard deviation]), 137 developed breast cancer over a median follow-up time of 5.3 years. Compared with a minimal or mild GTC, a moderate or marked GTC was associated with an increased cancer risk (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.1; P =.03) after adjusting for age and breast density. The GTC had an inverse association with lobular involution; women with no, mild, or moderate involution had greater odds (odds ratios of 4.9 [95% CI: 1.5, 16.6], 2.6 [95% CI: 0.95, 7.2], and 1.8 [95% CI: 0.7, 4.6], respectively) of a moderate or marked GTC than those with complete involution (P =.004). Conclusion: The glandular tissue component was independently associated with the future breast cancer risk in women with dense breasts and reflects the lobular involution. It should be considered for risk stratification during screening breast US.