Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the main causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Genetic information is of the utmost importance in understanding pathogenesis of ADPKD. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the genetic characteristics of ADPKD and their effects on renal function in 749 Korean ADPKD subjects from 524 unrelated families. Genetic studies of PKD1/2 were performed using targeted exome sequencing combined with Sanger sequencing in exon 1 of the PKD1 gene and a multiple ligation probe assay. The mutation detection rate was 80.7% (423/524 families, 331 mutations) and 70.7% was novel. PKD1 protein-truncating (PKD1-PT) genotype was associated with younger age at diagnosis, larger kidney volume, lower renal function compared to PKD1 non-truncating and PKD2 genotypes. The PKD1 genotype showed earlier onset of ESRD compared to PKD2 genotype (64.9 vs. 72.9 years old, P < 0.001). In frailty model controlled for age, gender, and familial clustering effect, PKD2 genotype had 0.2 times lower risk for reaching ESRD than PKD1-PT genotype (p = 0.037). In conclusion, our results suggest that genotyping can contribute to selecting rapid progressors for new emerging therapeutic interventions among Koreans.